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FAQ

This page lists the most frequently asked questions about studying art at the Hochschule für bildende Künste (HFBK) Hamburg - and, of course, the answers.

Which subjects can I study at the HFBK Hamburg?

If you are looking for a state art university in Europe, and specifically in Germany, where you can study art in an interdisciplinary and truly free way, then you have come to the right place. At the HFBK Hamburg, Fine Art is intentionally not divided up into study subjects or into the classic disciplines – all students study the single subject »Fine Arts«, on equal terms. Within this single subject, there are 8 study areas (see departments), with corresponding professorships.

When you apply for a study place (on the Bachelor of Fine Arts programme), you will be asked to give your preferred study area. However, after your first year – which is the orientation phase – you are free to study any combination of study areas, depending on which aspects of art interest you personally.

The same is true if you opt to study for the Lehramt (art teacher education programme) at the HFBK Hamburg.

What degrees can I study for at the HFBK?

The »Fine Arts« Bachelor-/Master study programme allows you to study for the Bachelor of Fine Arts qualification and, subsequently, for the Master of Fine Arts qualification at the HFBK Hamburg.

The teacher education programme is always combined with the Universität Hamburg and with the awarding of the Bachelor of Arts or the Master of Education qualification.

It is also possible to study for a doctorate at the HFBK Hamburg, which confers the title Dr. phil. in art. (philosophiae in artibus).

What is special about studying art at the HFBK Hamburg?

The HFBK Hamburg’s interdisciplinary study structure allows students to study in a particularly free way. The taught content is not arranged in rigid course structures, and this allows students to pose new questions and to develop new, innovative solutions. Studies centre on self-determined explorations of art and project-based and experimental ways of working.

Another special feature of the HFBK Hamburg is its excellent workshops, where almost any kind of art-related technical craftwork can be carried out. Students receive guidance and comprehensive support from the workshop supervisors.

The HFBK Hamburg is also very committed to student international exchanges. The university’s large number of partner universities and its generous support provision programme allows it to maintain excellent international connections.

How are studies organised?

The Bachelor study programme begins with a one-year orientation phase. During this, students are intensively supervised in basic classes.

Afterwards, the students increasingly pursue their own artistic interests and individual projects, solo or together with others. They will generally seek out a professor who will be able to help them move forward in their chosen pursuits. The final allocation to the classes takes place after the 1st presentation. Participation in the 1st presentation after the 2nd semester is compulsory.

The focus of all studies is on students' own artistic work. You will be awarded ECTS credits (required to pass the final examination) for taking part in classes, workshop courses, projects etc.

In principle a workspace is available at the university for anyone who wishes to work here.

Can I choose which professors I study with?

In theory, yes, but professors also have the right to choose which students they teach. The professors of art (many of whom are well-known artists) each have a closed group of students whom they supervise. Understandably, they will prefer to include students whose work they find particularly interesting.

However, as a rule, anyone can be admitted to their group tutorials. And anyone who (persistently) gets in touch should receive a reply.

Admission to the classes conducted by professors of Theory and History and other tutors is not restricted in this way. Their lectures are, of course, open to all students!

Are all classes taught in German?

Lectures and classes at the HFBK Hamburg are usually conducted in German. Prominent international figures we have been fortunate enough to attract to the HFBK Hamburg will sometimes teach in English. At present, Prof. Martin Boyce (Sculpture), Prof. Simon Denny (Time-based Media), Prof. Angela Bulloch (Time-based Media), Prof. Dr. Astrid Mania (Theory and History of Art) and Prof. Adina Pintilie (Film) conduct classes in English.

Proof of knowledge of the German language is not required. However, we strongly recommend that you have knowledge of the German language in order to be able to take full advantage of the courses offered (seminar, lectures, group and individual discussions, workshop offerings and more).

Is it free to study at the HFBK Hamburg?

In Hamburg, tuition fees were abolished for students studying at state universities as of 2012.

There are, however, certain required payments that must be paid promptly every semester: an administrative costs payment, a contribution to AStA (the student committee) and to the Studierendenwerk (the student union) and an additional payment to cover the cost of the semester ticket for public transport. The precise amounts involved vary slightly.

Where can I apply for financial support?

You can apply for a bursary to fund your studies in Germany from DAAD at any German embassy in your home country.

If you do not have enough money to cover your living costs and pay for essential study materials, you may also be eligible for BAföG (for instance, if you are an accepted asylum seeker or foreigner with permanent residency in Germany).

There are a number of bursaries and funds specifically for HFBK students, which you will be able to apply for when you have begun your studies. There are even special funds specifically for HFBK students from abroad.

Is Hamburg an expensive place to live?

Yes, Hamburg is a rather expensive place to live – particularly when you have to find rooms there. As a penniless student, one must be prepared to compromise and, if necessary, be prepared to settle for a modest place to live or one that is some distance away from the university. You can enquire about vacancies in the student halls of residence at the student union. If you go online, you will find a number of housing exchanges offering housing or flat share arrangements (so-called Wohngemeinschaft, short: WG).

Pub and restaurant prices in Hamburg are also more than averagely expensive. However, there is no need for anyone to starve: the HFBK Hamburg has an excellent Mensa (cafeteria) which offers a healthy lunch with special low subsidised prices for students.

One good thing about the economic conditions in Hamburg is that it is relatively easy to find a part-time job with a wide variety of employers.

How do I apply to the HFBK?

Applicants have to begin their studies at the HFBK Hamburg at the start of the winter semester. This means that the annual application period is very brief (!), and that you must apply before the application period ends.

You will then submit a digital portfolio containing about 20 examples of your own artwork plus your CV and certified document copies. In the case of overseas applicants, documents may have to be translated into English or German if necessary.

You first enter your application online in our application portal.

Because German is the main language at the HFBK, foreign applicants are also requested to provide evidence of proficiency in the German language.

Can I look around the HFBK before applying?

Absolutely! This is why we provide a prospective students information day as well as guided tours as part of the annual exhibition (in February) and the graduate show (in July).

Can I study at the HFBK if I have not gained an Abitur qualification?

This may be possible. Applicants without basic university entrance qualifications can be admitted to the HFBK Hamburg as arts students if the selection commission is convinced that they possess outstanding artistic ability. If this is your situation, please apply in the normal way.

What should I include in my digital application portfolio?

It should contain around 20 artworks completed by you. The main issue is not their technical or graphical perfection. It is more important for them to reveal your personal attitude to art – the themes that interest you and the way in which you address them. You can fill your digital artistic application portfolio with works such as PDF files, videos - including videos of your paintings or sculptures - films, documentation of performances) from the last two years.

Does the HFBK offer advice on portfolios?

The HFBK Hamburg has decided not to provide advice on portfolios, as we want your portfolios to be as authentic as possible and not tailored to a set of expectations. However, the individual departments do offer advice sessions for applicants and those who are interested, during which professors may be willing to discuss individual artworks.

What should I do if I miss the applications deadline?

Unfortunately, you will have to wait a year to apply again. Applications cannot be submitted after the deadline. This rule applies to all applicants.

The application period is precisely defined (please click on the links below): February for Bachelor/Master of Fine Arts and teacher education programme, September for doctorates.

How are applicants assessed?

After the application deadline, an admissions committee will review the application portfolios. The committee is made up of three professors, one member of the academic staff with voting rights and two students without voting rights.


The committee evaluates the application portfolios in categories A (admission) and C (rejection). Applicants who receive an A can begin their studies in the following winter semester.

The individual selection commissions for each department are free to invite applicants to a face-to-face meeting, or to complete a practical task. This generally takes place in April.

When will I know whether I have been accepted or not?

The Bachelor admissions commissions meet in March. If the admissions committee decides to invite you to an additional meeting or to create a piece of coursework, it will take place in April.

You will receive a written reply with the result in April. You will find the decision in your applicant account.

The Master admissions commissions meet in April. Applicants are informed of their decisions in May.

I have been accepted. What happens next?

You must enrol by the 15th of August, or your place at the university will become invalid.

Around the end of August, you will receive a written communication containing important event dates for the beginning of your studies (you must turn up for these!).

An up-to-date lecture timetable can be downloaded from late September.

Can I take part in student events at the HFBK Hamburg as a guest?

In theory, you may be able to take part as a guest under exceptional circumstances. You may attend as a free mover (based on our agreements with other universities). You may also individually take part in specific classes as an auditing student. Official permission is required! Important: Only persons with no intention to apply for a regular study place at the HFBK can be admitted as auditing student!

I want to transfer to the HFBK from another art university. What parts of my previous studies will be recognised?

After your application has been accepted, you will receive information from the HFBK’s examination authority about the academic work you have already completed and whether it counts towards the qualification you are studying for.

Contact for application and registration queries:

Students Office

Room: Wartenau 15, Raum 01 / 04a
Phone: +49 40 428 989-269
Fax: +49 40 42 89 89-377
Mail: hfbk-studverw@hfbk.hamburg.de

Contact for ERASMUS exchange queries:

International Office

Examination of the submitted portfolios

How to apply: study at HFBK Hamburg

From February 1 to March 6, 2023, 4 p.m., you can apply to study at HFBK Hamburg. Please find all important info here.

Visitors of the annual exhibition 2024; photo: Lukes Engelhardt

Annual Exhibition 2024 at the HFBK Hamburg

From February 9 -11, 2024 (daily 2-8 pm) the students of HFBK Hamburg present their artistic productions from the past year. In addition, the exhibition »Think & Feel! Speak & Act!« curated by Nadine Droste, as well as the presentation of exchange students from Goldsmiths, University of London, can be seen at ICAT.

photo: Tim Albrecht

(Ex)Changes of / in Art

There's a lot going on at the HFBK Hamburg at the end of the year: exhibitions at ICAT, the ASA students' Open Studios in Karolinenstraße, performances in the Extended Library and lectures in the Aula Wartenau.

Extended Libraries

Knowledge is now accessible from anywhere, at any time. In such a scenario, what role(s) can libraries still play? How can they support not only as knowledge archives but also as facilitators of artistic knowledge production? As an example, we present library projects by students and alumni, as well as our new knowledge space: the Extended Library.

Semester Opening 2023/24

We welcome the many new students to the HFBK Hamburg for the academic year 2023/24. A warm welcome also goes to the new professors, whom we would like to introduce to you here.

And Still I Rise

For over 20 years, US artist Rajkamal Kahlon has been interested in the connections between aesthetics and power, which are organized across historical and geographical boundaries, primarily through violence. With this solo exhibition, the HFBK Hamburg presents the versatile work of the professor of painting and drawing to the Hamburg art public for the first time.

photo: Lukes Engelhardt

photo: Lukes Engelhardt

No Tracking. No Paywall.

Just Premium Content! The (missing) summer offers the ideal opportunity to catch up on what has been missed. In our media library, faculty, students and alumni share knowledge and discussions with us - both emotional moments and controversial discourses. Through podcasts and videos, they contribute to current debates and address important topics that are currently in focus.

Let's talk about language

There are currently around 350 international students studying at the HFBK Hamburg, who speak 55 different languages - at least these are the official languages of their countries of origin. A quarter of the teaching staff have an international background. And the trend is rising. But how do we deal productively with the multilingualism of university members in everyday life? What ways of communication can be found? The current Lerchenfeld issue looks at creative solutions for dealing with multilingualism and lets numerous former international students have their say.

photo: Miriam Schmidt / HFBK

Graduate Show 2023: Unfinished Business

From July 13 to 16, 2023, 165 Bachelor's and Master's graduates of the class of 2022/23 will present their final projects from all areas of study. Under the title Final Cut, all graduation films will be shown on a big screen in the auditorium of the HFBK Hamburg.

photo: Ronja Lotz

photo: Ronja Lotz

Everything for Everyone

In May and June, the HFBK Hamburg offers a varied program with exhibitions, lectures, artist talks and performances. Lots of good reasons to shake off spring tiredness and jump into the programme...

A disguised man with sunglasses holds a star-shaped sign for the camera. It says "Suckle". The picture is taken in black and white.

photo: Honey-Suckle Company

Let`s work together

Collectives are booming in the art world. And they have been for several decades. For the start of the summer semester 2023, the new issue of the Lerchenfeld Magazine is dedicated to the topic of collective practice in art, presents selected collectives, and also explores the dangers and problems of collective working.

Jahresausstellung 2023, Arbeit von Toni Mosebach / Nora Strömer; photo: Lukes Engelhardt

Annual Exhibition 2023 at HFBK Hamburg

From February 10-12, students from all departments will present their artistic works at Lerchenfeld 2, Wartenau 15 and AtelierHaus, Lerchenfeld 2a. At ICAT, Tobias Peper, Artistic Director of the Kunstverein Harburger Bahnhof, curates an exhibition with HFBK master students. Also 10 exchange students from Goldsmiths, University of London will show their work there.

Symposium: Controversy over documenta fifteen

With this symposium on documenta fifteen on the 1st and 2nd of February, the HFBK Hamburg aims to analyze the background and context, foster dialogue between different viewpoints, and enable a debate that explicitly addresses anti-Semitism in the field of art. The symposium offers space for divergent positions and aims to open up perspectives for the present and future of exhibition making.

ASA Open Studios winter semester 2021/22; photo: Marie-Theres Böhmker

ASA Open Studios winter semester 2021/22; photo: Marie-Theres Böhmker

The best is saved until last

At the end of the year, once again there will be numerous exhibitions and events with an HFBK context. We have compiled some of them here. You will also find a short preview of two lectures of the professionalization program in January.

Non-Knowledge, Laughter and the Moving Image, Grafik: Leon Lothschütz

Non-Knowledge, Laughter and the Moving Image, Grafik: Leon Lothschütz

Festival and Symposium: Non-Knowledge, Laughter and the Moving Image

As the final part of the artistic research project, the festival and symposium invite you to screenings, performances, talks, and discussions that explore the potential of the moving images and the (human and non-human) body to overturn our habitual course and change the dominant order of things.

View of the packed auditorium at the start of the semester; photo: Lukas Engelhardt

View of the packed auditorium at the start of the semester; photo: Lukas Engelhardt

Wishing you a happy welcome

We are pleased to welcome many new faces to the HFBK Hamburg for the winter semester 2022/23. We have compiled some background information on our new professors and visiting professors here.

Solo exhibition by Konstantin Grcic

From September 29 to October 23, 2022, Konstantin Grcic (Professor of Industrial Design) will be showing a room-sized installation at ICAT - Institute for Contemporary Art & Transfer at the HFBK Hamburg consisting of objects designed by him and existing, newly assembled objects. At the same time, the space he designed for workshops, seminars and office workstations in the AtelierHaus will be put into operation.

Amna Elhassan, Tea Lady, oil on canvas, 100 x 100 cm

Amna Elhassan, Tea Lady, oil on canvas, 100 x 100 cm

Art and war

"Every artist is a human being". This statement by Martin Kippenberger, which is as true as it is existentialist (in an ironic rephrasing of the well-known Beuys quote), gets to the heart of the matter in many ways. On the one hand, it reminds us not to look away, to be (artistically) active and to raise our voices. At the same time, it is an exhortation to help those who are in need. And that is a lot of people at the moment, among them many artists. That is why it is important for art institutions to discuss not only art, but also politics.

Merlin Reichert, Die Alltäglichkeit des Untergangs, Installation in der Galerie der HFBK; photo: Tim Albrecht

Graduate Show 2022: We’ve Only Just Begun

From July 8 to 10, 2022, more than 160 Bachelor’s and Master’s graduates of the class of 2021/22 will present their final projects from all majors. Under the title Final Cut, all graduation films will be shown on a big screen in the auditorium of the HFBK Hamburg. At the same time, the exhibition of the Sudanese guest lecturer Amna Elhassan can be seen in the HFBK gallery in the Atelierhaus.

Grafik: Nele Willert, Dennise Salinas

Grafik: Nele Willert, Dennise Salinas

June is full of art and theory

It has been a long time since there has been so much on offer: a three-day congress on the visuality of the Internet brings together international web designers; the research collective freethought discusses the role of infrastructures; and the symposium marking the farewell of professor Michaela Ott takes up central questions of her research work.

Renée Green. ED/HF, 2017. Film still. Courtesy of the artist, Free Agent Media, Bortolami Gallery, New York, and Galerie Nagel Draxler, Berlin/Cologne/Munich.

Renée Green. ED/HF, 2017. Film still. Courtesy of the artist, Free Agent Media, Bortolami Gallery, New York, and Galerie Nagel Draxler, Berlin/Cologne/Munich.

Finkenwerder Art Prize 2022

The Finkenwerder Art Prize, initiated in 1999 by the Kulturkreis Finkenwerder e.V., has undergone a realignment: As a new partner, the HFBK Hamburg is expanding the prize to include the aspect of promoting young artists and, starting in 2022, will host the exhibition of the award winners in the HFBK Gallery. This year's Finkenwerder Art Prize will be awarded to the US artist Renée Green. HFBK graduate Frieda Toranzo Jaeger receives the Finkenwerder Art Prize for recent graduates.

Amanda F. Koch-Nielsen, Motherslugger; photo: Lukas Engelhardt

Amanda F. Koch-Nielsen, Motherslugger; photo: Lukas Engelhardt

Nachhaltigkeit im Kontext von Kunst und Kunsthochschule

Im Bewusstsein einer ausstehenden fundamentalen gesellschaftlichen Transformation und der nicht unwesentlichen Schrittmacherfunktion, die einem Ort der künstlerischen Forschung und Produktion hierbei womöglich zukommt, hat sich die HFBK Hamburg auf den Weg gemacht, das Thema strategisch wie konkret pragmatisch für die Hochschule zu entwickeln. Denn wer, wenn nicht die Künstler*innen sind in ihrer täglichen Arbeit damit befasst, das Gegebene zu hinterfragen, genau hinzuschauen, neue Möglichkeiten, wie die Welt sein könnte, zu erkennen und durchzuspielen, einem anderen Wissen Gestalt zu geben

New studio in the row of houses at Lerchenfeld

New studio in the row of houses at Lerchenfeld, in the background the building of Fritz Schumacher; photo: Tim Albrecht

Raum für die Kunst

After more than 40 years of intensive effort, a long-cherished dream is becoming reality for the HFBK Hamburg. With the newly opened studio building, the main areas of study Painting/Drawing, Sculpture and Time-Related Media will finally have the urgently needed studio space for Master's students. It simply needs space for their own ideas, for thinking, for art production, exhibitions and as a depot.

Martha Szymkowiak / Emilia Bongilaj, Installation “Mmh”; photo: Tim Albrecht

Martha Szymkowiak / Emilia Bongilaj, Installation “Mmh”; photo: Tim Albrecht

Annual Exhibition 2022 at the HFBK

After last year's digital edition, the 2022 annual exhibition at the HFBK Hamburg will once again take place with an audience. From 11-13 February, students from all departments will present their artistic work in the building at Lerchenfeld, Wartenau 15 and the newly opened Atelierhaus.

Annette Wehrmann, photography from the series Blumensprengungen, 1991-95; photo: Ort des Gegen e.V., VG-Bild Kunst Bonn

Annette Wehrmann, photography from the series Blumensprengungen, 1991-95; photo: Ort des Gegen e.V., VG-Bild Kunst Bonn

Conference: Counter-Monuments and Para-Monuments.

The international conference at HFBK Hamburg on December 2-4, 2021 – jointly conceived by Nora Sternfeld and Michaela Melián –, is dedicated to the history of artistic counter-monuments and forms of protest, discusses aesthetics of memory and historical manifestations in public space, and asks about para-monuments for the present.

23 Fragen des Institutional Questionaire, grafisch umgesetzt von Ran Altamirano auf den Türgläsern der HFBK Hamburg zur Jahresausstellung 2021; photo: Charlotte Spiegelfeld

23 Fragen des Institutional Questionaire, grafisch umgesetzt von Ran Altamirano auf den Türgläsern der HFBK Hamburg zur Jahresausstellung 2021; photo: Charlotte Spiegelfeld

Diversity

Who speaks? Who paints which motif? Who is shown, who is not? Questions of identity politics play an important role in art and thus also at the HFBK Hamburg. In the current issue, the university's own Lerchenfeld magazine highlights university structures as well as student initiatives that deal with diversity and identity.

photo: Klaus Frahm

photo: Klaus Frahm

Summer Break

The HFBK Hamburg is in the lecture-free period, many students and teachers are on summer vacation, art institutions have summer break. This is a good opportunity to read and see a variety of things:

ASA Open Studio 2019, Karolinenstraße 2a, Haus 5; photo: Matthew Muir

ASA Open Studio 2019, Karolinenstraße 2a, Haus 5; photo: Matthew Muir

Live und in Farbe: die ASA Open Studios im Juni 2021

Since 2010, the HFBK has organised the international exchange programme Art School Alliance. It enables HFBK students to spend a semester abroad at renowned partner universities and, vice versa, invites international art students to the HFBK. At the end of their stay in Hamburg, the students exhibit their work in the Open Studios in Karolinenstraße, which are now open again to the art-interested public.

Studiengruppe Prof. Dr. Anja Steidinger, Was animiert uns?, 2021, Mediathek der HFBK Hamburg, Filmstill

Studiengruppe Prof. Dr. Anja Steidinger, Was animiert uns?, 2021, Mediathek der HFBK Hamburg, Filmstill

Unlearning: Wartenau Assemblies

The art education professors Nora Sternfeld and Anja Steidinger initiated the format "Wartenau Assemblies". It oscillates between art, education, research and activism. Complementing this open space for action, there is now a dedicated website that accompanies the discourses, conversations and events.

Ausstellungsansicht "Schule der Folgenlosigkeit. Übungen für ein anderes Leben" im Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg; photo: Maximilian Schwarzmann

Ausstellungsansicht "Schule der Folgenlosigkeit. Übungen für ein anderes Leben" im Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg; photo: Maximilian Schwarzmann

School of No Consequences

Everyone is talking about consequences: The consequences of climate change, the Corona pandemic or digitalization. Friedrich von Borries (professor of design theory), on the other hand, is dedicated to consequence-free design. In “School of No Consequences. Exercises for a New Life” at the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg, he links collection objects with a "self-learning room" set up especially for the exhibition in such a way that a new perspective on "sustainability" emerges and supposedly universally valid ideas of a "proper life" are questioned.

Annual Exhibition 2021 at the HFBK

Annual exhibition a bit different: From February 12- 14, 2021 students at the Hamburg University of Fine Arts, together with their professors, had developed a variety of presentations on different communication channels. The formats ranged from streamed live performances to video programs, radio broadcasts, a telephone hotline, online conferences, and a web store for editions. In addition, isolated interventions could be discovered in the outdoor space of the HFBK and in the city.

Katja Pilipenko

Katja Pilipenko

Semestereröffnung und Hiscox-Preisverleihung 2020

On the evening of November 4, the HFBK celebrated the opening of the academic year 2020/21 as well as the awarding of the Hiscox Art Prize in a livestream - offline with enough distance and yet together online.

Exhibition Transparencies with works by Elena Crijnen, Annika Faescke, Svenja Frank, Francis Kussatz, Anne Meerpohl, Elisa Nessler, Julia Nordholz, Florentine Pahl, Cristina Rüesch, Janka Schubert, Wiebke Schwarzhans, Rosa Thiemer, Lea van Hall. Organized by Prof. Verena Issel and Fabian Hesse; photo: Screenshot

Exhibition Transparencies with works by Elena Crijnen, Annika Faescke, Svenja Frank, Francis Kussatz, Anne Meerpohl, Elisa Nessler, Julia Nordholz, Florentine Pahl, Cristina Rüesch, Janka Schubert, Wiebke Schwarzhans, Rosa Thiemer, Lea van Hall. Organized by Prof. Verena Issel and Fabian Hesse; photo: Screenshot

Teaching Art Online at the HFBK

How the university brings together its artistic interdisciplinary study structure with digital formats and their possibilities.

Alltagsrealität oder Klischee?; photo: Tim Albrecht

Alltagsrealität oder Klischee?; photo: Tim Albrecht

HFBK Graduate Survey

Studying art - and what comes next? The clichéd images stand their ground: Those who have studied art either become taxi drivers, work in a bar or marry rich. But only very few people could really live from art – especially in times of global crises. The HFBK Hamburg wanted to know more about this and commissioned the Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences at the University of Hamburg to conduct a broad-based survey of its graduates from the last 15 years.

Ausstellung Social Design, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg, Teilansicht; photo: MKG Hamburg

Ausstellung Social Design, Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe Hamburg, Teilansicht; photo: MKG Hamburg

How political is Social Design?

Social Design, as its own claim is often formulated, wants to address social grievances and ideally change them. Therefore, it sees itself as critical of society – and at the same time optimizes the existing. So what is the political dimension of Social Design – is it a motor for change or does it contribute to stabilizing and normalizing existing injustices?